Difference between revisions of "Single Stage to Orbit"

From OrbiterWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Single Stage To Orbit moved to Single Stage to Orbit)
m (Edits to conform with standard English grammar and usage)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Glossary|S SSTO]]
 
[[Category:Glossary|S SSTO]]
A Single-Stage-To-Orbit launcher is a launch system, which reaches at least low earth orbit with only a single stage. This definition does not even allow booster stages, which are called one-and-a-half stage launchers (eg. Atlas, R7).  In [[Orbiter]] the [[Delta-glider]] is an example of a SSTO vessel.
+
A Single-Stage-to-Orbit launcher is a launch system which reaches at least [[low earth orbit]] with only a single stage. This definition does not even allow booster stages, which are called one-and-a-half stage launchers (eg. Atlas, R7).  In [[Orbiter]] the [[Delta-glider]] is an example of an SSTO vessel.
  
  
Line 14: Line 14:
 
== Why is there no SSTO? ==
 
== Why is there no SSTO? ==
  
Regardless of the amount of historic SSTO designs, no SSTO design ever reached production stage. The reasons are not only of economic nature, there are also engineering problems:
+
Regardless of the amount of historic SSTO designs, no SSTO design ever reached production stage. The reasons for this are not only economic in nature; there are also substantial engineering problems that must be solved:
  
#Fuel tanks - The biggest problem for all SSTO designs lies in the ratio between launch mass and payload mass. In the rocket equation, this parameter is part of the [[mass ratio]]. Because SSTOs can't drop [[construction mass]] during launch, they have to carry the large fuel tanks into orbit, even when they are almost empty. When multistage launchers simply drop a stage and reduce the construction mass during ascent, a multistage rocket has to accelerate the whole structure until orbit.  
+
#Fuel tanks - The biggest problem for all SSTO designs lies in the ratio between launch mass and payload mass. In the rocket equation, this parameter is part of the [[mass ratio]]. Because SSTOs can't drop [[construction mass]] during launch, they have to carry the large fuel tanks into orbit, even when they are almost empty. While multistage launchers can simply drop a stage and reduce the construction mass during ascent, a single-stage rocket has to accelerate the whole structure into orbit.  
#Engine performance - The engines on a SSTO have to work from launch at sea level until reaching orbit in vacuum. While multistage rockets simply use optimized engines for each phase of the ascent, SSTO designs rely often on complex and often unrealistic engine designs.
+
#Engine performance - The engines on an SSTO have to work from launch (at ambient pressure) until reaching orbit in a vacuum. While multistage rockets simply use optimized engines for each phase of the ascent, SSTO designs rely often on complex and often unrealistic engine designs.
#Recovery - A SSTO launcher makes only sense when it can be reused. This increases structure and fuel mass and with it: Launch mass.
+
#Recovery - An SSTO launcher only makes economic sense when it can be reused. However, making the system reusable increases structure and fuel mass (in other words, total launch mass).
  
Many past SSTO designs had been multimillion kilogram vehicles, standing taller as the Saturn V.  
+
Many past SSTO designs have been multimillion kilogram vehicles, standing taller than the Saturn V.  
  
 
== Alternatives ==
 
== Alternatives ==
  
EADS Bremen currently developes a Single-Stage-To-Suborbital launch vehicle, with a reuseable winged  first stage. This approach needs significantly less fuel for ascent and landing. Similar approaches had been followed by the USA until the mid 90ies, but had been stopped during times of budget cuts.
+
EADS Bremen is currently developing a Single-Stage-to-Suborbital launch vehicle with a reuseable winged  first stage. This approach needs significantly less fuel for ascent and landing. Similar approaches had been pursued by the USA until the mid nineties, but were discontinued as a result of budget cuts.

Revision as of 00:21, 2 August 2005

A Single-Stage-to-Orbit launcher is a launch system which reaches at least low earth orbit with only a single stage. This definition does not even allow booster stages, which are called one-and-a-half stage launchers (eg. Atlas, R7). In Orbiter the Delta-glider is an example of an SSTO vessel.


Historic Concepts

  • TODO
  • Nova
  • Phil Bono Designs

Current SSTO designs

TODO

Why is there no SSTO?

Regardless of the amount of historic SSTO designs, no SSTO design ever reached production stage. The reasons for this are not only economic in nature; there are also substantial engineering problems that must be solved:

  1. Fuel tanks - The biggest problem for all SSTO designs lies in the ratio between launch mass and payload mass. In the rocket equation, this parameter is part of the mass ratio. Because SSTOs can't drop construction mass during launch, they have to carry the large fuel tanks into orbit, even when they are almost empty. While multistage launchers can simply drop a stage and reduce the construction mass during ascent, a single-stage rocket has to accelerate the whole structure into orbit.
  2. Engine performance - The engines on an SSTO have to work from launch (at ambient pressure) until reaching orbit in a vacuum. While multistage rockets simply use optimized engines for each phase of the ascent, SSTO designs rely often on complex and often unrealistic engine designs.
  3. Recovery - An SSTO launcher only makes economic sense when it can be reused. However, making the system reusable increases structure and fuel mass (in other words, total launch mass).

Many past SSTO designs have been multimillion kilogram vehicles, standing taller than the Saturn V.

Alternatives

EADS Bremen is currently developing a Single-Stage-to-Suborbital launch vehicle with a reuseable winged first stage. This approach needs significantly less fuel for ascent and landing. Similar approaches had been pursued by the USA until the mid nineties, but were discontinued as a result of budget cuts.